ch 11 sect 1,232 cards

Tagged as: economics, religion, business, criminal justic, law, medical, french, language, capitals, history

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1

Mecca

birthplace of mohhamad market town/holy city center for pilgrimagge had caravan routes that linked southern arabia and syria and palestine and another from mesopotamia to eastern africa

2

Bedouins

nomadic herders

3

Kaaba

ancient shrine where muslims go to pray in mecca believed to been built by Abraham

4

Khadija

mohammads wife that was a wealthy widow that had a prosperos caravan business

5

Quran

sacred text of islam states that god is all powerful and compassionate people are responsible for their own actions

6

people of the book

what jews and christians are for muslims spiritually superior to polytheistic idol worshipers

7

sharia

inmense body of law interpreting the quran and applying its teachings to daily life



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14

how did mohammad become the prophet of islam?

by saying that gabriel the angel told him that he was the messenger of god in a cave when he was meditating by starting and spreading islam

15

what are the five pilars of islam? how do they help unite muslims?

the duties that muslims must follow declaration of faith daily prayer charity to the poor fasting during ramadan pilgrimage to mecca by making them good caring people that share the same beliefs making them united

16

how do the quran and sharia guide the lives of muslims?

they say what is good and what is bad they say how you have to live your life and what you have to do

17

abu bakr

an early convert to Islam -was determined to continue the prophets work (Mohammad)

18

battle of tours

battle that took place in the city of Tours. -french defeated the Muslims

19

fatima and ali

Fatima was Mohammad's daughter and Ali was his son in law. Ali became the forth caliph

20

sufi

muslim mystics who sought communion with God through meditation and fasting. helped spread Islam through missionary work

21

umayyads

dynasty that ruled the Islamic world until 750. they had to adapt from desert life to ruling cities and territories they defeated Ali and killed his sons

22

abbasids

dynasty founded by Abu al Abass ended arab dominance and helped make Islam a universal religion

23

harun al-rashid

-caliph that used his generosity to create closer ties with other rulers -sent charlemagne gifts with hopes to form an alliance against the ummayad caliphate

24

seljuks

-900's the seljuks turks migrated to the middle east from central Asia -adopted islam and built large empire across the fertile crescent -seljuk interference with christian pilgrims led pope urban the II to call for the first crusade.

25

tamerlane

Mongol leader that led armies into the middle east - Invaded Persia, Mesopotamia, Russia and India

26

what areas did arab armies conquer? 3 reasons for the rapid sucess of the conquests

the conquered chunks of the byzantine empire, the Syria, Palestine, Damascus, Jerusalem and egypt. 1-weakness of byzantine and persian empire 2-bold efficient fighting methods 3-common faith Mohammad had given his people

27

what issues divided sunni muslims and shiite muslims?

sunni felt that the caliph should be chosen by leaders of the muslim community shiite argued that the true successors to the prophet were descendants of Mohammads daughter and son in law.

28

why did the empire of the abbassid caliphs decline and eventually break up?

it declined because abassid control over the arab empire fragmented, and independent dynasties ruled separate muslim states. Civil wars erupted and Shiite rulers took over the empire




32

Authority

sultan