chapter 6 and 7 bio vocab 43 cards

Tagged as: biology, physics, fitness, astronomy, biochemistry, physiology, nursing, medicine

 copy deck Copy deck

1

autotroph

organism that makes its own food (producer)

2

photosynthesis

process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars

3

heterotroph

organism that obtains food by eating other organisms

4

consumer

organism that obtains food by eating producers or consumers (heterotrophs)

5

cellular respiration

chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP

6

kinetic energy

energy of motion

7

potential energy

energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement

8

thermal energy

total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter

9

chemical energy

potential to perform work due to the arrangement of atoms within molecules

10

calorie

amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree C

11

organelle

part of a cell with a specific function

12

plasma membrane

thin outer boundary of a cell that regulates the traffic of chemicals between the cell and its surroundings

13

nucleus

in an atom, the central core that contains protons and neutrons;

14

cytoplasm

region of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

15

cell wall

strong wall outside a plant cell's plasma membrane that protects the cell and maintains its shape

16

prokaryotic cell

cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles

17

eukaryotic cell

cell with a nucleus (surrounded by its own membrane) and other internal organelles

18

phospholipid bilayer

two- layer "sandwich" of molecules that surrounds a cell

19

diffusion

net movement of particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated

20

equilibrium

point at which the number of diffusing molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number moving in the opposite direction

21

selectively permeable membrane

membrane that allows some substances to pass more easily than others and blocks the passage of some substances altogether

22

passive transport

diffusion across a membrane requiring only the random motion of molecules with no energy expended from the cell

23

facilitated diffusion

pathway provided by transport proteins that helps certain molecules pass through a membrane

24

osmosis

passive transport of water across a selectively permeable membrane

25

hypertonic

having a higher concentration of solute than another solution

26

hypotonic

having a lower concentration of solute than another solution

27

isotonic

having a solute concentration equal to that of another solution

28

active transport

movement of molecules across a membrane requiring energy to be expended by the cell

29

vesicle

small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

30

exocytosis

process of exporting proteins from a cell by a vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane and spilling the proteins outside the cell

31

endocytosis

process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane

32

nucleolus

ball-like mass of fibers and granules in a cell nucleus

33

ribosome

cluster of proteins and nucleic acids that constructs proteins in a cell's cytoplasm that produces a variety of molecules

34

Golgi apparatus

cellular organelle that modifies, stores and routes cell products

35

vacuole

membrane-bound sac that buds from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi apparatus

36

lysosome

membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides

37

chloroplast

organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place

38

mitochondria

cellular organelles where cellular respiration occurs

39

ATP

main energy source that cells use for most of their work

40

microtubule

straight, hollow tube of proteins that gives rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell

41

microfilament

solid rod of protein, thinner than a microtubule, that enables a cell to move or change shape

42

flagella

long, thin, whip=-

43

cilia

short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface