sociology50 cards

Tagged as: sociology, history, nursing, language, criminal justic, law, act

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1

Karl Marx

-bourgeoisie (haves) and proletariat (have nots) -conflict

2

variables

- independent: comes first -dependent: comes second

3

symbolic interactionism

(weber) -interested in which shared meanings, orientations,and assumptions from the basic motivations behind peoples actions

4

Derkeim

(functionalism) -positivist solciology: developed theory that to determine how social cohesion ismaintained or not, in that society -studied suicide

5

Mead

-social self -learn about others through games

6

Cooley

-looking glass self -learn through what others tell us

7

validity

-the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure

8

modern sociological thought

-functionalism -conflict -symbolic interactionism

9

quantative

(derheim) -numbers -surveys

10

sociological imagination

connects -personal troubles and public troubles -person biographies to social history -personal experiences to society

11

qualitive

-interviews -observes peoples -content analysis

12

reliability

-consistency

13

functionalism

(derkheim) -social order -keep status quo

14

Jane Addams

-nobel prize -hull house -social activist

15

null

-no realtionship

16

Weber

(symbolic interactionism) -verstehn: to interpret and understand the social world through experiences -to understand meanings attached to actions to understand why they do what they do

17

verstehn

to interpret and understand the social world through experiences

18

hawthorne effect

-when subjects improve or modify an aspect of their behavior simply in response to the fact that they are being studied

19

W.E.B. Dubois

-similar to marx but feels that he over looked issues of race and ethnicity -NAACP/ PhD Hardvard

20

alternative

-relationship

21

Chicago school

-big in sociology and field research

22

conflict

(marx) -conflict between competing interests is basic catalyst for social change in society in general

23

hypothesis

-a proposed relationship between two variables, usually with a stated direction -positive direction(same way) v. negative direction

24

operationalization

-the process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study

25

research rules

-1. transform variable into something measurbale -2. must be exhaustive -3. must be mutually exclusive(falls into one category)

26

generalizability

-the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied

27

norms-rules about behavior

1. folkway 2. mores 3. taboos

28

sanctions

-negative -formal -informal -positive

29

values

-general or abstract ideas about what is good land desirable -it defines what is desirable by ranking

30

beliefs

-peolpes ideas about what is real and not real -what we accept as factual

31

ideology

-a system of concepts and relationships that includes an understanding of cause and effect

32

socialization

-the process by which a person internalizes the values, beliefs, and norms of society and learns to function as a member of that society

33

cultural scripts

-modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural, but that may strongly shape beliefs or concepts held by a society

34

cultural relativism

-the idea we should recognize differences across cultures without passing judgment on or assigning value to those differences

35

culture

- a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices

36

material culture

-everything a part of out constructed environment

37

nonmaterial culture

-values - beliefs - language -norms - symbols - behaviors

38

symbols

-anything used to represent something moer than itself

39

language

-organized set symbols - without there could be no culture

40

sapir-whorf hypothesis

-the language we speak directly influences and reflect way we think about and experiences of the world - thinking and perception not only expressed through language but also shaped by it

41

social deviance

-any transgression of socially established norms

42

informal deviance

-minor transgression of norms

43

formal deviance/crime

-violation of law

44

social cohesion

-refers to the way people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a day-to-day basis

45

punitive justice

-focused on making the violator suffer thus defining the boundaries of acceptable behavior

46

rehabilitative justice

- examines the specific circumstances of an individual transgressor and attempts to finds way to rehabilitate him

47

social control

-is the set of mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals

48

normative compliance

-is the act of abiding by society's norms

49

Robert Merton's strain theory

-argues deviance occurs when a society does not give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals

50

Labeling Theory

-people unconsciously notice how others see or label them, and over time they internalize these labels and come to accept them as "truth" -people then behave to expectations